PEARL and GeoPEARL are used to evaluate the leaching of pesticides to the groundwater, the drainage to surface waters and the persistence of pesticides in topsoils. The model supports European and Dutch pesticide registration procedures. The model is also suitable for higher tier assessments. Metamodels of PEARL are used for policy evaluation.
EU registration process (FOCUS)
The Dutch registration procedure
EU evaluation process (FOCUS)
PEARL is used for assessment of pesticide leaching in the EU evaluation process and input for all nine groundwater scenarios, including all possible crops, has been developed. PEARL calculates the leaching at the FOCUS target depth (default is 1 m), but also allows for evaluation of leaching at greater depths. For the nine scenarios the total depth of the soil system in PEARL is at least 3 m. As PEARL is able to describe fluctuating groundwater tables and can use information on transformation rates in subsoils, effects of these processes can be studied as well.
Dutch registration procedure
PEARL is used in Dutch pesticide registration for first and higher tier assessments. GeoPEARL is used in the second tier. Higher tier assessments include the interpretation of lysimeter studies for pesticide registration.
PEARL is also used for national Dutch assessments of trends in reductions of emissions to the groundwater.